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More than 1,100 brilliant scientists and engineers push the boundaries of computing in multiple research areas and include contributions to Kinect for Xbox 360, work to develop an HIV vaccine, and advancing education techniques in rural communities.

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Recent advances in graphics processing units (GPUs) have resulted in massively parallel hardware that is easily programmable and widely available in commodity desktop computer systems. GPUs typically use single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) pipelines to achieve high performance with minimal area overhead. Scalar threads are grouped together into SIMD batches (sometimes referred to as warps). While SIMD is ideally suited for simple programs, recent GPUs include control flow instructions in...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Onur Mutlu, Tor Aamodt
Microsoft Research Video
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The Eventual Consistency (EC) approach, which does not restrict concurrent updates to replicas of an object, is essential to scalability of cloud computing. However, reconciling conflicts remains difficult, and published EC approaches are ad-hoc and error-prone; the literature offers little guidance on designing a correct EC system. Our model, Strong Eventual Consistency or SEC, is simple and theoretically sound: conflict freedom ensures safety and liveness despite any number of failures, thus...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Sebastian Burckhardt, Marc Shapiro
Microsoft Research Video
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Your life is the creation of what you focus on-and what you don’t. But what is “attention”, exactly? Can we train our focus? What happens in the brain when you deeply focus on something? With cutting edge information from neuroscience and behavioral science we can examine the role of attention in all areas of our lives, from work and relationships to the role it plays in innovation and creativity. In today’s world of omnipresent Blackberries, sound bites, Twitter and an increasing...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Winifred Gallagher
Microsoft Research Video
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This talk will describe a general recipe for replacing discrete stochastic processes by deterministic analogues that satisfy the same first-order limit laws but have smaller fluctuations. The recipe will be applied to several illustrative problems in the study of random walk and random aggregation. In particular, a derandomized version of the internal diffusion-limited aggregation model in two dimensions gives rise to a growing blob that is remarkably close to circular and also displays...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, David Wilson, James Propp
Microsoft Research Video
by Microsoft Research
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Technology matters because it is inseparable from being human. We have used tools for more than 100,000 years, and their central purpose has not always been to provide necessities. People excel at using old tools to solve new problems and at inventing new tools for more elegant solutions to old tasks. Perhaps this is because we are intimate with devices and machines from an early age – as children, we play with technological toys: trucks, cars, stoves, telephones, model railroads,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tamara Pesik, David E. Nye
Microsoft Research Video
by Microsoft Research
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Can we trust our intuitions? Daniel Kahneman reveals where we can and cannot trust instincts, exploring the machinery of the mind and the two systems that drive the way we think and make choices. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. Bringing together years of research from one of the most influential psychologists in history, Thinking Fast and Slow will transform the way you think about thinking. ©2011 Microsoft Corporation. All...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Daniel Kahneman
Microsoft Research Video
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Bill Gates talks about the Feynman Lectures being available on video. ©2010 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive
To understand Russian foreign policy goals after September 11 requires us to take much more seriously a factor generally downplayed in previous analyses: namely, debates among Russian elites concerning what it means for Russia to be a 'great power' in contemporary world politics. From this perspective, Putin’s emphasis on 'rebuilding the state' in order to restore Russia to its rightful global position has not only domestic, but also foreign policy implications. If ways can be found to...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tamara Pesik, Steve Hanson
Neural networks (NN) and support vector machines (SVM) play key roles in machine learning and data analysis. However, it is known that these popular learning techniques face some challenging issues such as: intensive human intervene, slow learning speed, poor learning scalability. The newly proposed Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) can resolve those challenging issues. This talk will give the answers on the reasons: 1) why ELM can work as universal approximator and why tuning is not required; 2)...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Li Deng, Guang-Bin Huang
Levy processes are random measures that give independent mass to independent increments. I will show how they can be used to model various types of data such as binary vectors or vectors of counts, with applications to text and images. These techniques fall in the category of nonparametric Bayesian methods, and are related to the better known Dirichlet process. ©2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Emre Kiciman, Romain Thibaux
Microsoft Research Video
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How do we know what the next generation of software users cares about? Sociologists often study exotic cultures by immersing themselves in an environment until they become accepted as insiders. Bill Corsaro, a scientist 'goes native' to study the secret world of children. Here, for the first time, are the children themselves, heard through an expert who knows that the only way to truly understand them is by becoming a member of their community. That's just what Corsaro did when he traded in his...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tamara Pesik, William Corsaro
They are tiny. They are tall. They are gray. They are green. They survey our world with enormous glowing eyes. To conduct their shocking experiments, they creep in at night to carry humans off to their spaceships. Yet there is no evidence that they exist at all. So how could anyone believe he or she was abducted by aliens? Or want to believe it? To answer these questions, psychologist Susan Clancy interviewed and evaluated 'abductees' – old and young, male and female, religious and agnostic....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tamara Pesik, Susan Clancy
Microsoft Research Video
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In many signal processing tasks, it is of interest to estimate some desired signal in the presence of noise as well as other sources of interference. If the desired and interfering signals have overlapping spectral content, estimation of the former from the observed mixture cannot be successfully achieved by so-called SISO (single input single output) filtering methods. More often than not, the desired signal and the sources of interference are emitted from distinct spatial locations. This has...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Dinei Florencio, Demba Ba
Why do Americans buy enormous cars? Choose the largest television sets possible? Frequent fast-food restaurants? Elect tall Presidents? Dr. Clotaire Rapaille is a French-born psychologist, now an American citizen, who has become a marketing guru retained by major Fortune 500 corporations worldwide. His work is based on the idea that every culture has a 'cultural unconscious' that drives the behavior of its members. His task has been to unearth our 'cultural archetypes' to reveal the way they...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tamara Pesik, Clotaire Rapaille
Microsoft Research Video
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This talk summarizes Powerset's endeavor to set up a flexible and data driven approach to handling word senses.In a traditional keyword search engine setting, word sense disambiguation is believed to play a subordinate role. While keyword queries tend to disambiguate itself through the presence of other keywords e.g. 'flying jets' vs. 'ny jets', this is not the case in an index expansion setting, where wrong sense expansions lead to spurious semantic matches.A system is proposed that consists...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Lucy Vanderwende, Chris Biemann
This video explains the body part recognition algorithm for Kinect published at CVPR 2011. ©2011 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive
Onboard the International Space Station, astronauts execute thousands of complex procedures to maintain life support systems, check out space suits, conduct science experiments and perform medical exams, among their many tasks. Today, when carrying out these procedures, an astronaut reads from paper procedures or a PDF viewer on a laptop computer, which requires the astronaut to shift attention from the task to scroll PDF pages. The goal of the Clarissa project has been to develop an...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Ciprian Chelba, Manny Rayner
Microsoft Research Video
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The shift toward multi-core processors is the most obvious implication of a greater trend toward efficient computing. In the past, hardware designers were willing to spend superlinear area and power for incremental performance improvements, but that era has come to an end.With the low-hanging fruit of processor microarchitecture having largely been picked, it is my belief that we will increasingly see a trend toward co-designing hardware with the software that runs on it.Processor designers...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jim Larus, Craig Zilles
Microsoft Research Video
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Determining the pose and actions of humans is one of the central problems of image and video analysis. The visual problem is challenging because humans are articulated animals, wear loose and varying clothing, self-occlude themselves, and stand against difficult and confusing backgrounds. Nevertheless, the area has seen great progress over the last decade due to advances in modelling, learning, and in the efficiency of algorithms. We describe approaches for recognizing human actions and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive
Microsoft Research Video
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Image-based object recognition is one of the quintessential problems for computer vision, and human faces are arguably the most important class of objects to recognize. Despite extensive studies and practices on face recognition in the past couple of decades, we in this talk contend that a critical piece of information has largely been over-looked, which holds the key for high-performance robust face recognition. That is, to a large extent, object recognition, and particularly face recognition...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Sing Bing Kang, Yi Ma
My colleague Dave Patterson and I originated the technique of letting pediatric burn patients escape into virtual reality during painful medical procedures at Harborview Burn Center in Seattle (with help from Gretchen Carrougher and Sam Sharar, MD. In SnowWorld, children wearing head tracked immersive VR helmets have the illusion of going into a 3D computer generated world where they are distracted from their burn pain during burn wound care by throwing snowballs at Snowmen, Igloos, Mammoths...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, John Nordlinger, Hunter Hoffman
Microsoft Research Video
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In Modernist Cuisine: The Art and Science of Cooking, Nathan Myhrvold, Chris Young, and Maxime Bilet—scientists, inventors, and accomplished cooks in their own right—have created a six-volume 2,400-page set that reveals science-inspired techniques for preparing food that ranges from the otherworldly to the sublime. The authors and their 20-person team at The Cooking Lab have achieved astounding new flavors and textures by using tools such as water baths, homogenizers, and centrifuges, and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Nathan Myhrvold
Is American education in crisis? Todd Oppenheimer argues that, at a cost of more that $70 billion, students and schools have become victims of the false promise of the miracle of computers and the Internet. The unrelenting onslaught of computers and the Internet in schools is exacting a terrible price beyond just shortfalls in school budgets – the further deterioration of children’s ability to reason and imagine. As the author demonstrates, every time a science class is computerized or a...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tamara Pesik, Todd Oppenheimer
In his talk, Professor Leavitt will focus on the philosophical, mathematical, and psychological underpinnings of Turing's landmark work, in particular Turing's proof of the insolubility of Hilbert's 'decision problem' (in the course of which he introduced the concept of the Turing machine) and the provocative essay on artificial intelligence in which Turing asked the famous question, 'Can a machine think?' Professor Leavitt will also discuss Turing's experiences as a homosexual man in pre- and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tamara Pesik, David Leavitt
Microsoft Research Video
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A social network - the graph of relationships and interactions within a group of individuals – plays a fundamental role as a medium for the spread of information, ideas, and influence among its members. An idea or innovation will appear - for example, the use of cell phones among college students, the adoption of a new drug within the medical profession, or the rise of a political movement in an unstable society - and it can either die out quickly or make significant inroads into the...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Dimitris Achlioptas, David Kempe
Microsoft Research Video
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AI systems must be able to reason about complex objects as well explicitly handle uncertainty. First order logic gives the formalism to handle the first. Probability gives the power to handle the latter. Combining the two has been a long standing goal of AI research. In this talk, I will present Markov Logic (Richardson & Domingos 06), which combines the power of full first order logic and Markov networks. Markov logic represents the underlying world by attaching real valued weights to...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Matt Richardson, Parag Singla
Humanity has a 50-50 chance of surviving this century, according to the eminent cosmologist Sir Martin Rees, Britain’s Astronomer Royal. Grim odds indeed, but James Martin, one of the great intellects of the information age, has devised a plan for stacking them more heavily in our favor. Martin has watched as concurrent crises pile up, including the destruction of the environment, overpopulation, poverty and terrorism—yet up until now lack of awareness and apathy have fostered inaction,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, James Martin
Microsoft Research Video
by Microsoft Research
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We consider the following two problems: a) How can we best compare two graphs? and b) How can we compare two nodes in a given graph? We present some algorithms based on the notion of random walks and diffusion and show that the two questions are intimately related. A naive algorithm requires O(n 6 ) time. Through extensions of linear algebra to Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS) and reduction to a Sylvester equation, we construct an algorithm that improves the time complexity to O(n 3 )....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Chris J.C. Burges, S V N Vishwanathan (Vishy)
Microsoft Research Video
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Taylor Branch has referred to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as a modern American founding father. Over the past twenty five years, Taylor Branch has written three volumes dedicated to the life of Dr. King. The first two books in this trilogy won just about every major literary award possible, including the Pulitzer Prize. Taylor will be at Microsoft Research discussing his third and final volume on Dr. King’s life and work At Canaan's Edge. He portrays King at the height of his moral power even...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tamara Pesik, Taylor Branch
What enables us to innovate, problem-solve and be happy, smart, resilient human beings?Our ability to play. We’ve all seen the happiness in the face of a child while playing in the school yard, or the blissful abandon of a golden retriever racing with glee across a lawn. This is the joy of play: purposeless and all consuming and most of all: fun. Yet play is anything but trivial, it is a biological drive as integral to our health as sleep or nutrition. Beyond play’s role in personal...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Stuart Brown
Microsoft Research Video
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The number of African Americans and Latino/as receiving undergraduate and advanced degrees in computer science is disproportionately low. Relatively few African American and Latino/a high school students receive the kind of institutional encouragement, educational opportunities and preparation needed for them to choose computer science as a field of study and profession. Let us look at the daily experiences of students in three Los Angeles public high schools: an overcrowded urban high school,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, Jane Margolis
Microsoft Research Video
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In 1999 A. Barabasi and R. Albert suggested the idea of preferential attachment to explain the power law distribution of the vertex degrees in web graphs. Several mathematical models have then appeared incorporating this idea. Among them, the LCD model by B. Bollobas and O. Riordan, the Buckley--Osthus model, the Bollobas--Borgs-Chayes--Riordan model of directed scale-free graphs, etc. Many deep results have been obtained concerning these models. For example, one studies the degree...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Yuval Peres, Andrey Raigorodsky
Microsoft Research Video
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This is a demo of the Shape Game sample application, which is included in the Kinect for Windows SDK beta from Microsoft Research. This sample displays the tracked skeletons of two players together with shapes falling from the sky. Players can control the shapes by moving and speaking commands. ©2011 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Learn more Demo of Shape Game Sample Included with Kinect for Windows SDK (external)
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive
According to a recent study from the Yale Project on Climate Change, 40 percent of Americans believe there is major scientific disagreement as to whether global warming is real. Yet you would be hard-pressed to find any working climate scientist who didn’t think global warming is happening, and has been for some time. Ideology and corporate interest have skewed public understanding and spread confusion about many of the most important issues of our time. Campaigns to mislead the public and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Naomi Oreskes
Microsoft Research Video
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A talk by Simon Peyton-Jones for Think Computer Science 2010. ©2011 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Microsoft Research Cambridge
Microsoft Research Video
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We propose the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP), a hierarchical, nonparametric, Bayesian model for clustering problems involving multiple groups of data. Such grouped clustering problems occur often in practice, e.g. in the problem of topic discovery in document corpora (Hoffman 1999, Blei et al 2003). Each group of data is modeled with a mixture, with the number of components being open-ended and inferred automatically by the model. Further, components can be shared across groups, allowing...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Nebojsa Jojic, Yee Whye Teh
People like to look at images and interact with them. We will show how scanned beam technology can either display, or capture images, and that this makes it unique when compared to other display technologies such as LCD,PDP,OLED, or projection. Scanned beam is what is used in laser printers in one dimensional form. We have replaced the polygon by a MEMs device as small as a few millimeters in size that scans in two dimensions at video rates. This small size and simplicity enables a range of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Steven Bathiche and Andy Wilson, John R. Lewis
In peer-to-peer file sharing systems, file replication and consistency maintenance are widely used techniques for high system performance. Despite significant interdependencies between them, these two issues are typically addressed separately. Most file replication methods rigidly specify replica nodes, leading to low replica utilization, unnecessary replicas and hence extra consistency maintenance overhead. Most consistency maintenance methods propagate update messages based on message...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Jin Li, Haiying (Helen) Shen
Microsoft Research Video
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Array signal processing is a well-established area of research, spanning from phased array antennas in the middle of the last century to hands-free audio in recent years. As devices incorporating microphone arrays begin to appear in the home, new practical challenges are presented to well-known signal processing problems such as source localization and beamforming. In this talk, we consider some new algorithms that use multichannel observations outside the common beamforming paradigm. These...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Ivan Tashev, Mark Thomas
In this talk I will overview my research on emotion expression and emotion recognition in speech signal and its applications. Two proprietary databases of emotional utterances were used in this research. The first database consists of 700 emotional utterances in English pronounced by 30 subjects portraying five emotional states: unemotional (normal), anger, happiness, sadness, and fear. The second database consists of 3660 emotional utterances in Russian by 61 subjects portraying the following...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Alex Acero, Valery Petrushin
Microsoft Research Video
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Donald Knuth’s “The Art of Computer Programming” on algorithms and their analysis is a classic text in computer science. The image of computer programming that is reflected in this book is one that is highly analytical and mathematical. It calls to mind the figure of a lone developer sitting down at a keyboard to enter esoteric codes into computer. It is difficult to imagine a more “technical” activity; the code must be syntactically correct before it compiles and the algorithms must...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Rob DeLine, Susan Elliott Sim
Microsoft Research Video
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Use this add-in for Microsoft Office Word, Excel and Powerpoint to create and manage Creative Commons licenses. This video gives a brief introduction to the add-in. ©2011 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Learn more Creative Commons Education and Scholarly Communication Creative Commons Add-in for Microsoft Office 2003 & Office XP v1.2 Creative Commons Add-in for Microsoft Office
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive
We introduce abstract models for multithreaded programs based on dynamic networks of pushdown systems. We address the problem of symbolic reachability analysis for these models. More precisely, we consider the problem of computing effective representations of their reachability sets using (finite-state) automata-based techniques. We show that, while forward reachability sets are not regular in general (but context-free), backward reachability sets starting from regular sets of configurations...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Shaz Qadeer, Ahmed Bouajjani
Microsoft Research Video
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Until recently, the study of cognition and the neurophysiological basis of human behavior was the subject of quite separate disciplines such as psychology, neurophysiology, cognitive science, computer science, and philosophy, among others. Mental processes were mainly studied in the framework of abstract theories, mathematical models, and disembodied artificial intelligence. It has now become clear that mental processes are strongly entwined with the physical structure of the body and its...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Zhengyou Zhang, Giorgio Metta
Microsoft Research Video
by Microsoft Research
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Analyzing the Process of Knowledge Dynamics in Sustainability Innovation: Towards a Data-Intensive Approach to Sustainability Science Masaru Yarime, University of Tokyo Data-Intensive Science for Safety, Trust, and Sustainability Shuichi Iwata, The University of Tokyo ©2010 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Masaru Yarime and Shuichi Iwata
Microsoft Research Video
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Albert Einstein is a great icon of our age: the kindly refugee from oppression whose wild halo of hair, twinkling eyes, engaging humanity, and extraordinary brilliance made his face a symbol and his name a synonym for genius. In 2006, all of his (published and unpublished) papers were unsealed, and with this new information we can get a deeper understanding of the man and his place in history. What role did Einstein’s 'rebellious nature' play in his creativity? What were his thoughts about...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, Walter...
Microsoft Research Video
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No organization can survive without iconoclasts: innovators who single handedly upturn conventional wisdom and manage to achieve what so many others deem impossible. Though indispensable, true iconoclasts are few and far between. What are the constraints the human mind puts on innovative thinking and how can we avoid them? Through vivid accounts of a wide range of iconoclasts including artist Dale Chihuly, physicist Richard Feynman and others we can see the inner workings of the iconoclast’s...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, Gregory Berns
Microsoft Research Video
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Deep neural networks that contain many layers of non-linear feature detectors fell out of favor because it was hard to get enough labeled data to train many millions of parameters and difficult to optimize the connection weights really well. Both of these problems can be overcome by first training a multi-layer belief net to form a top-down generative model of unlabeled input data and then using the features discovered by the belief net to initialize a bottom-up neural net. The neural net can...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Li Deng and Alex Acero, Geoffrey Hinton
Microsoft Research Video
by Microsoft Research
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Electronic documents provide vast amounts of information, but need to be organized in a way that lets people use that information.Topic models provide one way of approaching this problem, automatically identifying the 'topics' that appear in a collection of documents, and indicating the extent to which each document reflects each topic. I will summarize the basic ideas behind one such model, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (Blei, Ng, & Jordan, 2003), and use this model to describe how tools...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Chris Quirk, Tom Griffiths
Current spoken dialogue systems (SDS) typically employ hand-crafted decision networks or flow-charts to determine what action to take at each point in a conversation. The result is a system which is fragile to speech recognition errors and which is unable to adapt and learn from experience. There are two key features needed to build robust and adaptable spoken dialogue systems. Firstly, the system must have an explicit mechanism for modelling uncertainty and, secondly, the system must have an...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Tim Paek, Steve Young
Microsoft Research Video
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At the Microsoft Research Faculty Summit 2010, Harry Shum, corporate vice president and lead of core search development at Microsoft, talks about the Bing search engine and web intelligence. Yu-Ting kuo, principal program manager for Bing.com, walks you through some Bing demos. ©2010 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Evelyne Viegas, Harry Shum, Yu-Ting Kuo, and...
Alex Wade, director for Scholarly Communication at Microsoft Research Connections, demos the Chemistry Add-in for Word and Article Authoring Add-in for Word in Session I of invited demonstrations at the October 2011 eScience Workshop: Transforming Scholarly Communication . This demo was presented under the subgrouping, "Literature: Publications based on text and still images (creation, reviewing, dissemination, archiving, and reproducibility)." Session Moderator: Mary Lee Kennedy,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Alex Wade
Microsoft Research Video
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Functional programming languages have been a very productive laboratory for developing new language features and in particular powerful type systems. The use of static typing represents the most widespread and successful application of formal verification. Many of the innovations in research languages like Haskell can traced to new features in mainstream programming languages like C#. What will be the new wave of innovations in types that will appear in mainstream languages? Exciting candidates...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Judith Bishop, Satnam Singh, Simon...
Sixty years ago, at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, a 32 x 32 x 40-bit matrix of 24-microsecond random access memory was undergoing initial tests. John von Neumann (1903-1957) succeeded in jump-starting the digital revolution by bringing engineers into the den of the mathematicians, rather than by bringing mathematicians into a den of engineers. This implementation of Alan Turing’s Universal Machine broke the distinction between numbers that mean things and numbers...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Yuval Peres, George Dyson
Microsoft Research Video
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The Web is a vast resource of information on practically anything one can think of. Unfortunately, the information is mostly in unstructured text, making it difficult for machines to process. This talk presents new methods for identifying synonymous objects and relations on the Web, on top of an information extraction system. New techniques developed for this problem include a novel probabilistic model for synonym extraction, and a highly scalable clustering algorithm. The results have been...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kristina Toutanova, Alexander Yates
Microsoft Research Video
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In free-viewpoint video (FVV), multiple video streams are used to re-render a time-varying scene from arbitrary viewpoints. Free navigation with respect to time and space in streams of visual data might represent the next major step in terms of interactivity, allowing for instant virtual replays and freeze-and-rotate effects. In our work on free-viewpoint video we focus on representations and methodologies to capture and process dynamic scenes from sparsely arranged video cameras. In this talk...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Sing Bing Kang, Stephan Wuermlin
Microsoft Research Video
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Kernel-based learning methods revolve around the notion of a Gram matrix between data points. These square, symmetric, positive semi-definite matrices can informally be regarded as encoding pairwise similarity between all of the objects in a data-set. In this talk I present an algorithm for manipulating the diagonal entries of a kernel matrix using semi-definite programming. Kernel matrix diagonal dominance reduction attempts to deal with the problem of learning with almost orthogonal features,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Chris J.C. Burges, Jaz Kandola
In the stochastic knapsack problem, we are given a knapsack with size B, and a set of jobs whose sizes and rewards are drawn from a known probability distribution. However, the only way to know the actual size and reward is to schedule the job---when it completes, we get to know these values. How should we schedule jobs to maximize the expected total reward? We know constant-factor approximations for this problem when we assume that rewards and sizes are independent random variables, and that...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Nikhil Devanur Rangarajan, R. Ravi
Textual data is everywhere, in email and scientific papers, in online newspapers and e-commerce sites. The Web contains more than 200 terabytes of text not even counting the contents of dynamic textual databases. This enormous source of knowledge is seriously underexploited. Textual documents on the Web are very hard to model computationally: they are mostly unstructured, time-dependent, collectively authored, multilingual, and of uneven importance. Traditional grammar-based techniques don't...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Ciprian Chelba, Dragomir R. Radev
Microsoft Research Video
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Wireless networking is becoming the dominant technology for Internet access, resulting in a rapidly growing demand for wireless bandwidth. Meeting these demands requires new wireless techniques that make efficient use of the scarce unlicensed spectrum. In this talk, I will discuss four such techniques: channel aware rate adaptation (Charm), a protocol for opportunistic retransmission (PRO), transmit power and CCA threshold tuning, and the use of directional antennas. I will present the design,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Ranveer Chandra, Peter Steenkiste
Microsoft Research Video
by Microsoft Research
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"Kristin Lauter chairs this session at Faculty Summit 2011, which includes the following presentations. Cryptographic Cloud Storage and Services—Kristin Lauter, Microsoft Research Encryption as Access Control for Cloud Security—Carl Gunter, University of Illinois The Economics of Cloud Computing: Why a Brooklyn Latte Buys a Million Unforgettable Signatures—Radu Sion, Stony Brook University *
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kristin Lauter, Kristin Lauter, Carl Gunter,...
Microsoft Research Video
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In recent years, the Internet has experienced an astronomical increase in the use of specialized content delivery systems, such as peer-to-peer file-sharing systems (e.g., Kazaa, Gnutella, or Napster) and content delivery networks (e.g., Akamai). The sudden popularity of peer-to-peer file-sharing systems has resulted in a flurry of research activity into novel peer-to-peer system designs. Because these systems: (1) are fully distributed, without any infrastructure that can be directly measured,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Mike Jones, Stefan Saroiu
Microsoft Research Video
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The claytronics project is working on realizing programmable matter. Programmable matter is any substance which can be programmed to effect a change in one or more of its physical characteristics. In claytronics, the substance is a collection of individual units, each of which can sense, compute, communicate, and actuate. The long range goal for claytronics is for the collection to behave as a coherent mass and mimic, with high-fidelity and in 3-dimensional solid form, the look, feel, and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Stewart Tansley, Seth Copen Goldstein
Despite having made significant inroads into a variety of traditionally male-dominated fields, women continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering (CS&E). Many theories have been put forth to explain this phenomenon, ranging from innate female inferiority in quantitative skills to an unwillingness by women to put in late hours. Dr. Cheryan’s research shifts the explanation for this underrepresentation away from women’s deficiencies and instead examines whether it...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Merrie Morris, Sapna Cheryan, Lauren Hudson,...
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Unsupervised learning of linguistic structure is a difficult task. Frequently, standard techniques such as maximum-likelihood estimation yield poor results or are simply inappropriate (as when the class of models under consideration includes models of varying complexity). In this talk, I discuss how Bayesian statistical methods can be applied to the problem of unsupervised language learning to develop principled model-based systems and improve results. I first present some work on word...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Mark Johnson, Sharon Goldwater
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"Donald Brinkman chairs this session at Faculty Summit 2011, which includes the following presentations. Making Discovery Visible: A Participatory Approach to Developing Games for Broadening Participation in Science—Kurt Squire, University of Wisconsin at Madison Unlike Broccoli for Chocolate: Foldit, Refraction, and How Embedded Assessment is Changing the Game of Education—Seth Cooper, University of Washington Assessment? #%&! Why Traditional Assessment Takes the Fun out of Game...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Donald Brinkman, Donald Brinkman, Kurt...
Microsoft Research Video
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A core element of microeconomics and game theory is that consumers have valuationfunctions over bundles of goods and that these valuation functions drive theirpurchases. In particular, the value given to a bundle need not be the sum of values onthe individual items but rather can be a more complex function of how the itemsrelate. Common valuation classes considered in the literature include OXS,submodular, and XOS valuations. Typically it is assumed that these valuations areknown to the center...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Yael Kalai, Maria Florina Balcan
Microsoft Research Video
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Leading social psychologist and scientist Roy F. Baumeister’s latest research reveals that the average person spends four hours of their day battling temptation. While self-control is biologically rooted, we have the capacity to manipulate our nature. Willpower works like a muscle that can be strengthened with practice, and fatigued with overuse. Combining the best of modern social science with practical wisdom, Baumeister and Tierney revolutionize our understanding of self-control. ©2011...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kirsten Wiley, John Tierney and Roy Baumeister
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In today’s world, transparency-acting with candor, disclosure, integrity and honesty-is increasingly linked to both survival and success. Not only does transparency enhance individual and organizational performance, but it also has the potential to tap into previously unthinkable levels of collective wisdom. The technologies that have accelerated this change are here to stay, and as a result there will only be a further interest in transparency. How to become this kind of organization? What...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, James O'Toole
Microsoft Research Video
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Given a point process M of intensity one in the plane, the well-known Voronoi tesselation assigns a polygon (of different area) to each point of M. The geometry of 'fair' allocations (assigning unit area to each point of M) is richer and more mysterious: see http://www.math.ubc.ca/~holroyd/stable.html There is a unique 'fair' allocation that is 'stable' in the sense of the Gale-Shapley stable marriage problem, every point of M is assigned a bounded region with finitely many components, but...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Scott Sheffield, Yuval Peres
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Alberto Accomazzi, project manager, NASA Astrophysics Data System at Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, demos ADS and ADS Labs in session II of invited demonstrations at the October 2011 eScience Workshop: Transforming Scholarly Communication . This demo was presented under the subgrouping, "Resources: Seamless technologies for literature and data (literature/data search engines; cloud-based, group sharing, adjustable permissions, integration with search)" Session Moderator:...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Alberto Accomazzi
Relational logic is an attractive candidate for a software description language, because both the design and implementation of software often involve reasoning about relational structures, whether in the problem domain (organizational structure, for example), in the high level design (architectural configurations, for example) or in low level code (graphs and linked lists). Until recently, however, frameworks for solving relational constraints (such as Alloy3) have had limited applicability....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Nikolaj Bjorner, Emina Torlak
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Textual Entailment has been proposed recently as a generic framework for modeling semantic variability in many Natural Language Processing applications, such as Question Answering, Information Extraction, Information Retrieval and Document Summarization. The Textual Entailment relationship holds between two text fragments, termed text and hypothesis, if the truth of the hypothesis can be inferred from the text. In this talk, the Textual Entailment framework will be introduced. I'll then present...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Bill Dolan, Idan Szpektor
key note ©2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Harold Javid, Jeff Dozier, Timo Hannay, Ben...
Today, number crunching affects your life in ways you might never imagine, as organizations are analyzing massive databases at lighting speed to provide insights into human behavior. From internet sites that know your tastes better than you do, to a physician’s diagnosis and your child’s education, to boardrooms and government agencies-this new kind of decision making is calling the shots, and they are delivering staggeringly accurate results. How can a coach evaluate a player without ever...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Video Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, Ian Ayres